Interior of lithium battery

lithium battery



Interior of lithium battery


The award of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry to three scientists for their role in the discovery of lithium batteries has highlighted the kind of batteries that have revolutionized our lifestyle.


Lithium batteries are widely used, from mobile phones and laptops to electric cars.


The lithium battery market is currently estimated at more than 90 billion per year, compared to 37 billion in 2018.


Lithium batteries are powerful and contribute to improving the environment by reducing the use of fossil fuels by allowing storage of solar, wind and other renewable sources.


The 2019 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to British Stanley Whittingham, American John Goode Aguila, and Japanese Akira Yoshino who contributed to the invention of this type of battery.


The award committee tweeted:


"Through their (three) work, this year's Nobel Prize winners for chemistry laid the foundation for a radio society free of fossil fuels."


First Battery


Whittingham developed the first functional lithium battery in the 1970s but it was highly explosive and unusable.


Whittingham, who works at Binghampton University of America, discovered a substance called titanium sulfide that he hired to produce the positive end in the battery, called cathode.


He then made the anode (the negative end) of metallic lithium, which is very well known for its electrons, the lighter metal in the periodic table of chemical elements.


The battery was 2 volts, but lithium made it explosive.


In 1980, a professor at the University of Texas, God Aguila, improved battery performance through the use of cobalt oxide instead of sulfuride, raising the battery capacity to 4 volts.


Based on the work of God Aguila, the Japanese Yoshino devised the first commercially usable lithium battery in 1985. He now works at Japan's Meijo University.


Lithium batteries entered the market extensively in 1991.


How does it work?


Batteries store and release energy mainly through a series of chemical reactions that occur at their negative poles (anode) and cathode.


Positive ions move from anode to cathode through an electrolyte solution that exists between the two.


The process is reversed to make the battery chargeable.


Scientists are now developing lithium batteries with carbon oxide, and some believe that this type will move battery technology to a new level, because of its recharging and long-term energy retention.



Plus, an invention that will turn our current cars into something of the past. Scientists test batteries charged in 3 minutes, half a century old.


"A battery charges in three minutes, and it's half a century old, and that's not its only advantage." Scientists are testing new technologies called solid lithium batteries or solid-state lithium batteries that will revolutionize the world of electric charging and solve problems facing the electric car industry.


Lithium batteries are an essential source of power for a large proportion of the world's electric vehicles and operate on the same principles, regardless of their materials, with lithium ions moving between the positive and negative poles through the electrolite "conductor."


The conventional lithium-ion battery uses an electrolyte fluid with an interpolar separation that allows the ion to pass.


A solid-state battery or solid battery that scientists seek to employ in so-called solid-state lithium batteries is a battery technology that uses solid electrolytes and solid electrolytes, rather than liquid or polymeric gel electrolytes found in lithium-ion batteries or lithium-polymer batteries.


Types of electric vehicle batteries


there is a lote of types:


lithium-ion batteries


The most common type of battery used in electric cars is lithium-ion battery, which is also used in most portable electronic devices, according to Energy Sage.


Lithium-ion batteries have a high energy-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency and good high temperature performance, which is vital for electric cars. Lower weight means that the car can travel longer distances on a single charge.


Lithium-ion batteries also have a low "self-discharge" rate, which means that they are better than other batteries at maintaining the ability to retain full charge over time.


In addition, most parts of the lithium-ion battery are recyclable, making these batteries a good environmental option.


nickel and metal hydride batteries


Nickel hydride and metal batteries are widely used in hybrid electric vehicles, but are also successfully used in some electric vehicles.


Hybrid electric vehicles do not derive power from an additional external source, and instead rely on fuel to recharge the battery, which excludes them from the definition of an electric vehicle.


Nickel metal hydride batteries have a longer life cycle than lithium-ion batteries or lead acid batteries, and are safe and tolerant of abuse.


However, the biggest problems with nickel and metal hydride batteries are their high cost and high self-discharge rate, and the fact that they generate high temperature, makes these batteries less effective for rechargeable electric vehicles, which is why they are used mainly in hybrid electric cars.


Acid lead batteries


Acid lead batteries are currently used only in electric cars to supplement other battery loads. They are high energy, inexpensive, safe and reliable, but their short life and poor performance in cold temperatures make them difficult to use in electric cars.


There are high energy lead acid batteries under development, but now the batteries are only used in commercial vehicles as secondary storage.


Super capacitors


Supercapacitors are not batteries in the traditional sense, and are like acid lead batteries, mainly useful as secondary storage devices in electric cars, because supercapacitors help electrochemical batteries settle their load. In addition, supercapacitors can provide electric vehicles with additional power during acceleration and renewed inhibition.


The previous presentation suggests that lithium batteries are the best and most suitable batteries for electric cars and electronic devices, and the current prevailing liquid lithium batteries use liquid conductors as "liquid electrolytes," which, while successful, have many problems, most notably the length of the cargo period.


Hence the importance of the project to develop solid lithium batteries, i.e. lithium batteries using solid, not liquid, electrolytes.


Promising experience of developing solid lithium batteries


In the U.S. state of Colorado, a new solid state battery is being tested that will revolutionize the world of batteries, according to a report by the website Popular Mechanics.


In a region free of moisture and contaminants, Solid Power produced the first metal solid lithium battery cells of full size.


This technique seems too good to believe in theory.


It would lead to a jump of 10 times the energy stored in the battery (or 10 times the capacity), compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries.


Liquid lithium ion battery features currently in operation


The conventional lithium - ion liquid battery is already a recent marvel that brought the Nobel Prize to its leading researchers, thanks to the unprecedented energy density of lithium.


It was, for example, an immediate boon for pacemaker patients, who can now rely on a battery for 10 years instead of two years. But the biggest impact of lithium on batteries came with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries in the 1990s for portable electronics and electric cars.


Lithium has always been the focus of battery research for decades because it's an excellent conductor.


Dr. John Leo, director at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, says: "Lithium metal is the highest material we know of capacity."


"Lithium creates a really high effort," says Jeff Sakamoto, a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan, who specializes in solid-state batteries, "and compared to other alkali like potassium or sodium, lithium has the smallest ion size, and the third lowest atomic weight in the periodic table, meaning more electrons, and thus more electricity stored with the weight and size of a smaller battery.


The energy density of lithium ion cells is four times greater than that of nickel and cadmium batteries, which have largely been replaced by lithium batteries.


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